十大网赌网址新世纪如何决定为产品支付多少钱? What are the actual mechanisms at stake in the valuation and choice of products? 最近的一项研究, the general asymmetric engagement of brain structures was found to be highly related to later product choice, 以及消费者愿意支付的价格.
近年来, studies in consumer neuroscience have provided new insights into the mechanisms of product evaluation and choice. In 2007, Knutson and colleagues showed that product desire was related to the engagement of deep basal ganglia responses during product viewing, 这预测了后续的产品选择. Aversive responses to high prices were related to higher engagement of the insula, suggesting that this region is involved in aversion responses to undesired price levels. 在Ravaja等人的一项研究中. it was found that an asymmetric engagement of the frontal brain was related to product choice, 但与价格选择无关.
Few studies have looked at the mechanisms underlying product value computation and consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP). The purpose of this study was to unravel the neural mechanisms of WTP calculation, and the idea that frontal asymmetry could be related to such choices.
在这项研究中，16名健康女性(年龄平均±性病= 27岁).1 ± 8.2) were taken from a larger study sample dedicated to a compulsive buying study. None of the participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for compulsive buying or the pre-clinical condition of compensatory buying.
The participants were positioned in front of a screen and asked to look at products on a screen for three seconds. 每次十大网赌网址新世纪之后, they were asked to say how much they were willing to pay for the product by using a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 2000 Danish Kroners (about 330 USD). Four product categories were used: shoes, bags, clothes, and FMCG products. The study was set up in such a way that participants were motivated to provide the WTP choices that best matched their true preferences.
评估大脑反应, 十大网赌网址新世纪使用了14通道脑电图(EEG)耳机, and recorded eye-tracking with an eye-tracking bar under the screen. 在每一轮选择中, we calculated the frontal asymmetry in three frequency bands of brain activity: alpha, β, 和伽马.
Our overall assumption was that frontal brain asymmetry was related to WTP calculation when people looked at products. 更具体地说, we assumed that a stronger activity in the brain’s left relative to the right prefrontal cortex would be related to higher WTP choices. Based on prior research, we assumed that asymmetry in the alpha band would be related to WTP. 除了, since alpha is typically related to de-activation of the brain, we assumed that both β 和伽马 would show an asymmetry relationship with WTP choices, since both frequency bands are considered among the “activity” bands of the brain.
图1研究设置, where participants first saw a product for 3 seconds and were then asked to tell how much they were willing to pay for the product (in Danish Kroner).
图2 The findings of frontal asymmetry for the frequency bands alpha, β 和伽马. More positive scores for β 和伽马 indicated that the left was more engaged than the right. Only the gamma asymmetry score was significantly related to WTP calculations.
Our results surprisingly showed that only frontal asymmetry in the gamma band was related to WTP calculations. No significant effects were found for asymmetry responses in the alpha or β bands. This suggested that only asymmetry in the gamma band was related to the calculation of WTP for products.
In a second analysis, we looked at how asymmetry responses worked for different product categories. 在这里, the gamma frontal asymmetry showed a positive relationship for bags and shoes – higher left than right frontal gamma was related to higher WTP. 相反, 快速消费品, there was a negative relationship – higher left than right frontal gamma was related to lower product WTP.
最后, 十大网赌网址新世纪研究了不对称反应是如何随着时间的推移而发展的, 从最初的产品查看到WTP响应. 在这里, we found that the frontal gamma response became stronger over time. The asymmetry effect was significant already during the first second of product viewing, 但是除此之外, 参与者越接近实现他们的选择, the stronger the difference in gamma activity in the left relative to the right prefrontal cortex. No such effect was found for the alpha or β band asymmetry scores.
Our study sheds new light on the mechanisms underlying how products are evaluated. Prior studies have suggested that frontal asymmetry is related to motivation and choice. We wanted to test whether both standard alpha asymmetry as well as other frequencies would be related to product choice and WTP responses.
We found that only frontal asymmetry in the gamma band is related to product WTP, 而和不是. This effect was present even during one second of product viewing. 随着时间的推移，这种不对称反应越来越强烈, suggesting that it is even more involved in effectuating product choice and valuation responses.
This article was originally published in the 神经营销学年鉴. 今天订购你的副本